Raspberry Pis are awesome .
This post is about how to setup a WiFi with a Raspberry Pi 3. It describes what packages you have to install and one example is shown how to configure them. In the end you will have an Raspberry Pi 3, which is connected through ethernet to the internet. The Pi provides an SSID and takes care that the traffic between WiFi and Ethernet is forwarded.
This tutorial basically follows the instructions on http://elinux.org/RPI-Wireless-Hotspot, except that it uses
dnsmasq instead of
Download and install an operating system for the Raspberry Pi. I used "Raspbian" and followed this description:
Before you unmount the flashed card, create a file named
ssh in the boot segment on the disk. Otherwise you won't be able to SSH into the Raspberry Pi.
Connect the Pi to your local network (through ethernet), search for the little rascal (i.e. using
nmap) and connect to it via
When logged in, you will have to install at least 2 packages:
hostapd. I always love to have
vim, so here's what I did:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install vim
sudo apt-get install dnsmasq
sudo apt-get install hostapd
Configure the wlan interface
Now, let's edit the
iface wlan0 part in
/etc/network/interfaces, make sure it is
static and has following properties:
allow-hotplug wlan0 iface wlan0 inet static address 10.0.0.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 wpa-conf /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
Behold, that I used the address
10.0.0.1 as static IP. We will have to use the same IP for the DHCP configuration.
At this point you should quickly restart the networking service.
sudo service networking restart
ifconfig wlan0 should then show the applied changes on in the wlan0 interface.
The Pi will have to manage the clients IP address (DHCP) on the
wlan0 interface. I used DNSmasq for the DHCP server, but it should work fine with any other DHCP servers.
However, let's edit
domain-needed bogus-priv interface=wlan0 listen-address=10.0.0.1 dhcp-range=10.0.0.2,10.0.0.254,12h dhcp-option=option:router,10.0.0.1 dhcp-authoritative
Note that the Pi's static IP address is used for
dhcp-option=option:router. For more information about that, consider reading http://www.thekelleys.org.uk/dnsmasq/doc.html. ;-)
Portforwarding (route wlan0 to eth0)
The next step affects iptables. I am no expert in this, so I basically just copy pasted that stuff and ensured that the in
-i and out
-o parameters made sense.
sudo iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE sudo iptables -A FORWARD -i eth0 -o wlan0 -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT sudo iptables -A FORWARD -i wlan0 -o eth0 -j ACCEPT
In a nutshell, it allows that general traffic/communication is allowed between the interfaces
wlan0 (wireless) and
eth0 (ethernet). In order that the iptables rules apply immediately, you'll have to do this:
sudo sh -c "echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward"
In order that the iptables rules are considered after reboot, edit
/etc/sysctl.conf, and uncomment this line:
Finally persist the iptables rules, otherwise they get truncated after reboot. I used a package
iptables-persistent which persists the rules right during installation which is pretty convenient.
sudo apt-get install iptables-persistent
Configure the access point
Now it get's interesting. We can create our own SSID and define a password. Therefore create
/etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf and paste and save this:
interface=wlan0 driver=nl80211 ssid=SIMPLIFICATOR-WIFI hw_mode=g channel=6 macaddr_acl=0 auth_algs=1 ignore_broadcast_ssid=0 wpa=2 wpa_passphrase=YOUR-INCREDIBLY-SECURE-PASSWORD wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK #wpa_pairwise=TKIP # You better do not use this weak encryption (only used by old client devices) rsn_pairwise=CCMP ieee80211n=1 # 802.11n support wmm_enabled=1 # QoS support ht_capab=[HT40][SHORT-GI-20][DSSS_CCK-40]
Let's connect the above config to the default hostapd config, edit
/etc/default/hostapd and make sure
DAEMON_CONF is uncommented and points to the config file.
Services (hostapd & dnsmasq)
Lastly, let's restart the services and enable them, so that the start automatically on boot.
sudo service hostapd restart sudo service dnsmasq restart sudo update-rc.d hostapd enable sudo update-rc.d dnsmasq enable
You should now see a WiFi named
SIMPLIFICATOR-WIFI and connect to it using the passphrase
YOUR-INCREDIBLY-SECURE-PASSWORD, or whatever values you have given it.
While writing the blog post I had several insights:
- Raspberry Pi 3 comes with an 2.4 GHz 802.11n (150 Mbit/s) WiFi. It's always good to know the limits of the bandwidth.
- Even if you used a WiFi USB adapater with 1000 Mbit/s, the maximum speed would be 480 Mbit/s because of the USB 2 interface (!)
- I wasn't able to configure the Pi, so that two WiFi dongles run simultaneously, so that you could extend the range of an existing WiFi without having the Pi connected to an ethernet cable.